On Anglicisms

Avoiding Béarlachas, unwanted English influence on Irish, is an important and big thing among learners, and it is not always easy to say which Anglicism is acceptable and which isn’t. Myself, I try to distinguish well-established Anglicisms from more recent ones, and Gaeltacht anglicisms from learners’ mistakes. On the other hand, it should be noted that Gaeltacht anglicisms come and go, and – iontas na n-iontas, wonder of wonders – it is not at all unheard of that a classical writer whose books and stories we are asked to look upon as something to cherish and imitate uses anglicisms that have gone out of use.

When asked to define unacceptable Anglicisms, I would suggest above all syntactic features:

  • using forms of tá where only is is appropriate;
  • using prepositions in a way modelled on English;
  • using articles where they are not appropriate: in English we might say the president of this country, but in Irish it is Uachtarán na tíre seo, and it would be out and out wrong to add an article before the first noun
  • translating word for word from English wherever there are more Irish expressions.

I am less preoccupied with English loanwords that are well adapted to the Irish system of declensions and conjugations. Sometimes people suggest that I shouldn’t use English words such as músaem, and prefer iarsmalann instead. Myself, I happily use both. It is good to use an international word which fits neatly in, such as músaem, and it is similarly good to use a word using an Irish derivative suffix, such as iarsmalann. Similarly, I am happy to use teileafón, fón, and guthán interchangeably, although the fact that fón isn’t quite assimilated to the Irish initial mutation system does make me somewhat wary about it. (Incidentally, I picked up guthán from an Ulster native speaker, so don’t tell me native speakers don’t use guthán and similar terms.)

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How to translate “for” into Irish

To start with, remember that the equivalents of verbs which take for in English govern their own prepositions in Irish, and that you are supposed to learn the preposition with the verb. So, for instance, he is waiting for Seán is in Irish tá sé ag fanacht le Seán. This does not mean that le is particularly common as an equivalent for for, though.

But let’s get on with it. Here:

DO is typically used in the sense “to the benefit of”. Tá mé ag obair dó “I am working for him.”

AS is typically used in the sense “in return for”. D’íoc mé dhá euro as “I paid two euro for it”.

But note AR in the related but somewhat different sense in “I bought it for two euro”: Cheannaigh mé ar dhá euro é.

AR SON is usually used in the sense “for the sake of a noble cause”: Fuair Seán Ó Rudaí bás i bpáirc an áir ar son na hÉireann. “Seán Ó Rudaí died on the battlefield for Ireland.” It is a combined preposition that takes the genitive case, and when used with personal pronouns, you insert a possessive pronoun between ar and sonar mo shon, ar do shon, ar a shon, ar a son, ar ár son, ar bhur son, ar a son. Note that in spoken dialects, the son part is often permanently lenited after ar, i.e. ar shon na hÉireann.

Note, though, that in Ulster Irish, ar son does usually have the sense “in return for, in payment for”. There, you’d say D’íoc mé dhá euro ar a shonI guess that in Ulster, you’d use I bhFÁCH LE or AR MHAITHE LE when speaking about siding with causes or doing something in favour of somebody or something. In these expression, le is the normal preposition le and behaves in the normal way, as regards prepositional pronouns, mutations and stuff. (For your information: the prepositional forms of le are liom, leat, leis, léi – léithi in Ulster -, linn, libh, leo – or leofa in Ulster. Le becomes leis before the definite articles: leis an, leis na. And with the article it affects the noun in the usual ways.)

AS UCHT is usually used for “in return for”: go raibh míle maith agat as ucht do chineáltais “thank you a thousand times for your kindness”. It does find some use even in the sense “for the sake of” and “in account for”, but personally I’d prefer to use it only in the sense of “in return for”, and then only speaking about abstract things (i.e. I thank you as ucht your kindness, but I pay you as this thing I am buying).

LE hAGHAIDH is used in the meaning of “intended for”: Chuir siad seomra in áirithe le m’aghaidh “They reserved a room for me”.

IN ARAICIS is typically Ulster Irish, and it is used when you go, say, to the airport or the railway station “for” somebody, i.e. to meet and fetch this person. Chuaigh siad go stáisiún na traenach in araicis Sheáin “they went to the railway station for Seán”. Takes genitive, or personal pronouns. I guess that in the standard language you use i m’araicis, i d’araicis, ina araicis, ina haraicis, inár n-araicis, in bhur n-araicis, ina n-araicis, but the first two ones are in m’araicis, in d’araicis if the orthography tries to imitate genuine dialectal pronunciation.

I gCOMHAIR or FAOI CHOMHAIR is basically synonymous with LE hAGHAIDH, i.e. intended for. Use genitive, or personal possessive pronouns when appropriate: i mo chomhair, i do chomhair, ina chomhair, ina comhair, inár gcomhair, in bhur gcomhair, ina gcomhair; faoi mo chomhair, faoi do chomhair, faoina chomhair, faoina comhair, faoinár gcomhair, faoi bhur gcomhair, faoina gcomhair.

AR FEADH (I tend to write it ar feádh, but I see that the standard orthography is ar feadh with no fada. Oops.). This one is mostly temporal: ar feadh lae, ar feadh bliana and so on – “for the duration of a day, a year”…

THAR CIONN. Well, the standard is again thar ceann, but in my opinion it is entrenched enough to use the old dative form here. This means “on behalf of”, i.e. as a representative for. Shínigh an Príomh-Fheidhmeannach an conradh thar cionn Bigmoney Teoranta. “The Chief Executive Officer signed the contract for (on behalf of) Bigmoney Ltd.” Takes genitive (thar cionn na cuideachta) and personal possessive pronouns (thar mo chionn, thar do chionn, thar a chionn, thar a cionn, thar ár gcionn, thar bhur gcionn, thar a gcionn).

FAOI DHÉIN when you go to the shop “for” something, or when you go and fetch somebody from the airport or the railway station. Chuaigh mé go dtí an siopa faoi choinne uachtar reoite = I went to the shop for some ice cream. Takes genitive, and personal possessive pronouns (faoi mo dhéin, faoi do dhéin, faoina dhéin, faoina déin, faoinár ndéin, faoi bhur ndéin, faoina ndéin).

FAOI CHOINNE is for a particular kind of use, for an occasion. Cheannaigh mé cóta te faoi choinne an gheimhridh = I bought a warm coat for winter. Takes genitive, and personal possessive pronouns (faoi mo choinne, faoi do choinne, faoina choinne, faoina coinne, faoinár gcoinne, faoi bhur gcoinne, faoina gcoinne).

DE GHRÁ is used typically with abstract nouns in the meaning “for the sake of…” (de ghrá na síochána = “for the sake of peace”, for instance). Takes genitive.

Teicneachabaireacht an “Réaltaistir” agus an Ghaeilge

(leagan leasaithe den tseanaiste a foilsíodh ar an Tuairisceoir sa bhliain 2013)

Ceann de na foinsí Béarlachais is mó i saol na Gaeilge í an tsiamsaíocht Mheiriceánach – sin rud chomh follasach agus is féidir. Ní gnách Gaeilge a chur ar na sraithscéalta teilifíse a bhfuil gnaoi an phobail orthu, ná fiú ar na leabhair mhór-ratha le scríbhneoirí éadroma. Ró-annamh a bhactar leis an teanga a chur ar leabhair nach raibh iontu ar dtús ach ficsean sainseánra (nó genre fiction mar a deir an Béarla) nó garrfhicsean (pulp fiction) agus a bhain amach clú an chlasaicigh idir an dá linn. (Tá mé féin tar éis leabhar amháin den chineál sin,  Foundation le hIsaac Asimov, a aistriú go Gaeilge. Thairis sin, tá Foundation and Empire leis an údar céanna agus A Princess of Mars le hEdgar Rice Burroughs á n-aistriú go Gaeilge agam i láthair na huaire.) Is beag an sólás do lucht na Gaeilge é, ach is féidir an fhadhb chéanna a aithint i saol na dteangacha eile – teangacha, fiú, a bhfuil stádas cobhsaí acu i saol cultúrtha agus poiblí a dtíortha.

San Fhionlainn, mar shampla, chloisfeá cliséanna na sraithscéalta Meiriceánacha go léir – sa bhunteanga – i gcoimhthéacs an chomhrá Fionlainnise. Tá an Béarla á fhoghlaim ón tríú rang bunscoile i leith. Thairis sin, ní gnách linn na sraithscéalta teilifíse a dhubáil: is fearr linn fotheidil ná athghuth. Mar sin, chuala muid criú an Enterprise, na Friends, agus laochra na sraithscéalta eile ag labhairt Béarla ar an teilí riamh, agus d’éirigh muid cleachtach ar a gcuid buafhocal. Ní hé sin an scéal atá fíor ina lán tíortha Eorpacha eile. Cé go bhfuil Gearmáinis an lae inniu torrach le focail Bhéarla, dealraíonn sé gurb as Gearmáinis a labhraíos Picard, Janeway, Worf agus Troi, gan tagairt a dhéanamh don chuid eile acu, ar theilifís na Gearmáine.

Luaigh mé an Enterprise, agus ceart go leor beidh an Star Trek go mór mór faoi chaibidil agam san aiste seo. Nó an Réaltaistear – sin é an leagan Gaeilge a múineadh dom thiar sna nóchaidí, nuair nach raibh mé ach díreach i ndiaidh ballraíocht a bhaint amach ar an bhfóram Gaeilge úd Gaelic-L.

Tá sé ina sheandeilín smolchaite ag lucht na Gaeilge ná nach bhfuil maith ar bith sna téarmaí eolaíochta a thagas as ceárta an Choiste Téarmaíochta. Cé nach bhfuil mé féin sásta le gach moladh dá n-eisíonn siad, caithfidh mé a rá go bhfuil mé tinn tuirseach de bhéal bhocht seo na nGaeilgeoirí i dtaobh na téarmaíochta oifigiúla ar na saoltaibh seo. Déarfainn go raibh téarmaí ar choincheapanna nua-aimseartha amscaí i ngach teanga ó thús. Nuair a chuaigh na cainteoirí ina dtaithí thréig an coimhthíos. Sin, nó chuir siad a gcasadh féin ar an bhfocal lena dhéanamh níos nádúrtha sa teanga.

Mar sin is é is bunrúta leis an bhfadhb áirithe seo – arís – ná nach n-úsáidtear an Ghaeilge ná na téarmaí eolaíocha Gaeilge go fairsing. Dá gcloisfeá téarmaí Gaeilge ar an teilifís an t-am ar fad, dá mbeifeá ag léamh leabhair fhaisnéise faoi bhrainsí éagsúla eolaíochta agus a gcúrsaí, agus dá mbeadh cultúr léitheoireachta an chineál sin leabhar forleathan i measc lucht na Gaeilge (ar ndóigh ba mhór an chabhair dá mbeadh na leabhair sin ann!), is dócha nach mbeadh na daoine chomh míshásta is atá siad leis na téarmaí, cé go mba iad na “drochthéarmaí” céanna a bheadh i gceist. Is é an locht is mó atá ar na téarmaí Gaeilge ná go bhfanann siad sna foclóirí in áit a bheith i gcúrsaíocht choitianta.

Patrick Stewart ina Bhorg
“Ní fiú cur inár n-aghaidh! Déanfar cuid den chnuasphobal díbh!” (“Resistance is futile! You will be assimilated”) Sin é an chaint a chloisfeá ó na “Borg“. Is iad na Borg cine na gcibearg in ollchruinne fhicseanúil an Réaltaistir – daoine agus iad iompaithe ina róbait. Níl pearsantacht ná indibhidiúlacht acu, agus is é an t-aon chuspóir atá acu ná na daoine go léir a “Bhorgú” nó a “chomhshamhlú” le comhphobal agus cnuasintinn na mBorg. San eipeasóid dhúbailte “The Best of Both Worlds” (“Rogha an Dá Shaol” – is iad sin saol na ndaoine daonna agus saol na mBorg) den tsraith “Star Trek: The Next Generation”, d’éirigh leis na Borg captaen an Enterprise, Jean-Luc Picard, a chimiú agus a “chomhshamhlú”, ionas go ndearnadh Borg de. “Locutus” an t-ainm a bhí air agus é ina chibearg – focal Laidine a chiallaíos “An Té a Labhair”. Sa deireadh, d’éirigh le criú an Enterprise Picard a tharrtháil agus gléasra na mBorg a bhaint de. Ba é Patrick Stewart a rinne páirt Jean-Luc Picard sa tsraith ST:TNG. (Foinse: Vicipéid an Bhéarla.)

Is minic a bhíos na téarmaí Béarla ar choincheapanna eolaíochta lán chomh hamscaí leis na téarmaí Gaeilge. Scéal eile é áfach go gcloiseann na Béarlóirí na téarmaí seo i gcoimhthéacs na teanga nádúrtha, agus nuair atá Béarla dúchasach timpeall ar an bhfocal deacair, is furasta duit do chuid féin a dhéanamh de. Bítear ag fáil lochta ar an “teicneachabaireacht” (technobabble) ar na sraithscéalta ficsin eolaíochta, cosúil leis an Réaltaistear, go minic, nó ag gáire fúithi, ach b’fhearr liom sibhse stad den scigiúlacht sin le bhur marana a dhéanamh ar an bhfíric seo leanas: is í an teicneachabaireacht a chuireas an chosmhuintir i dtaithí na bhfocal eolaíoch agus a dhéanas cuid nádúrtha den ghnáthchaint díobh. Is é an fhadhb ná nach mbíonn na focail nuachumtha nó na téarmaí eolaíochta le cloisteáil i sruth na cainte líofa ná le léamh i gcoimhthéacs na dea-Ghaeilge. A mhalairt ar fad.

Is minic a chloiseas muid iomrá ar an dá rud “Gaeilge uafásach scoile” agus “Gaeilge Gaeltachta”, ach ar an drochuair dealraíonn sé nár bhac aon duine riamh le comparáid chórasach a dhéanamh idir an stíl a chleachtas na scríbhneoirí dúchasacha agus an cineál Gaeilge a bhíos le léamh i scríbhinní na n-údar nár fhoghlaim Gaeilge ach ar scoil. Mar sin, níl treoirleabhair ná téacsleabhair againn a mhíneodh don ghnáthléitheoir, don ghnáthscríbhneoir agus don ghnáth-Ghaeilgeoir bhocht conas a d’fhéadfadh sé “an Ghaeilge uafásach scoile” a dhí-fhoghlaim. (An ar mo chrann-sa a thitfeas sé, meas tú?)

Is deacair a rá ar ndóigh céard is dea-Ghaeilge ann, an cineál Gaeilge a mba chóir dúinn aithris a dhéanamh air, an stíl neodrach. Ina lán teangacha tá stíl na teanga liteartha chomh cobhsaí, chomh seanbhunaithe, is nach bhfuil mórán easaontais ann faoin gcineál teanga ba chóir a fhoghlaim is a chleachtadh. Bíonn scríbhneoirí cruthaitheacha ann agus a gcuid turgnamh is trialach idir lámhaibh acu ach tríd is tríd tá a fhios agat céard is dea-stíl ann mar a thuigfeadh clasaicigh na teanga an coincheap sin. Maidir le dea-stíl na Gaeilge, arís, chinn mé, na blianta ó shin, mo thuiscint féin ar na cúrsaí seo a thógáil ar dhúshraith an bhéaloidis agus na scéalaíochta traidisiúnta.

B’fhéidir nach raibh traidisiún liteartha ag muintir na Gaeltachta fadó, ach ar a laghad bhí traidisiún scéalaíochta agus seanchais acu, agus cé gur gnách linn mar Ghaeilgeoirí bheith ag caí, ag cáiseamh agus ag caoineadh an tsaibhris a cailleadh nuair a d’imigh an teanga, is é lomlán na fírinne ná go bhfuil cuid mhór den tsaibhreas chéanna againn i gcónaí. San am a chaith mé féin i mo Ghaeilgeoir chuaigh a lán ábhar béaloidis i gcló faoi chlúdach leabhair, agus de réir is mar a rinne mé staidéar ar na cinn a cheannaigh mé i rith an ama seo tháinig ciall agam do Ghaeilge na Gaeltachta. Ní féidir liom a rá go mbeinn ar aon leibhéal leis na máistrí móra ach sílim go bhfuil mé in ann aithris éigin a dhéanamh ar a bhfuil léite agam agus na hamscaíochtaí is dual do scríbhneoirí na Galltachta a sheachaint.

Cé go bhfuil na nuathéarmaí riachtanach agus géar-riachtanach, is é an rud is tábhachtaí, an rud is géire a theastaíos, ná an Ghaeilge thraidisiúnta. Caithfidh an scríbhneoir maith bheith eolach ar an ábhar agus ar na téarmaí riachtanacha, ach san am chéanna caithfidh sé a bheith ábalta na saintéarmaí a sheachaint nuair nach bhfuil gá leo. Níl sna téarmaí sin ach uirlisí de chuid na ceirde go bunúsach. Mar is eol dúinn, is namhaid í an cheird gan í a fhoghlaim agus bíonn an uirlis is úsáidí dainséarach díobhálach i lámh an duine nach bhfuil an dóigh cheart aige uirthi.

Is iomaí cineál Béarlachais a chuireas isteach ar léitheoir na Gaeilge, ar ndóigh. Ceann acu an rómhuinín a bhíos ag scríbhneoirí maithe féin as na téarmaí nuachumtha i gcoimhthéacsanna neamhoiriúnacha, Bíonn an Béarla scríofa an-difriúil leis an teanga líofa labhartha, agus na focail teibí teicniúla ag ruaigeadh na gnáthchainte as, agus is rómhinic a fheicim daoine a bhfuil a gcuid Gaeilge go hiontach ar fad nuair a labhraíos siad ag cur seaicéad ceangail an Bhéarla fhoirmiúil orthu féin nuair a thosaíos siad ag scríobh – ag scríobh Gaeilge.

Teastaíonn uathu téarmaí casta “liteartha” a chur in áit na bhfocal nádúrtha, in aithris ar nós an Bhéarla. Ní féidir leo anáil a tharraingt ná a ligean amach mar is dual don duine – tosaíonn siad ag ionanálú agus ag easanálú, nó fiú ag cleachtadh ríospráide. Anois, admhaím go mbíonn focail cosúil leis an mbeirt seo ag teastáil agus sinn ag iarraidh cúrsaí eolaíochta a phlé – shílfínn nach ndéanfá in uireasa “ionanálú”, “easanálú” nó “ríospráid” i dtráchtas leigheaseolaíochta nó fiseolaíochta. Ach má bhímid ag plé na rudaí seo i gcomhthéacs na gnáthchainte, is é an rud is tábhachtaí ná na gnáthfhocail nó na gnáthleaganacha a fhoghlaim is a úsáid, is é sin, tarraingt na hanála agus ligean amach na hanála.

Is mór an trua ar ndóigh má bhaineann daoine úsáid as “ionanálú” agus “easanálú” toisc nach bhfuil na leaganacha dúchasacha ar eolas acu agus iad ag gabháil leor leis an gcéad fhocal (nó fiú leis an aon fhocal!) a dtagann siad air san fhoclóir. Má théann siad ar lorg “inhale” agus “exhale” – focail mhóra Laidineacha sa Bhéarla féin, gheobhaidh siad ansin “ionanálaigh” agus “easanálaigh”, téarmaí troma Gaeilge nach bhfuil inghlactha ach i dtéacs foirmiúil leigheaseolaíochta, má scríobhtar téacsanna den chineál sin sa teanga ar aon nós.

Má chuirimid Gaeilge i mbéal na mBorg ar an Réaltaistear, is é an chéad leagan a mholfas lucht na Gaeilge scoile dúinn ná “comhshamhlófar sibh” nó rud éigin cosúil leis sin, Cúpla mí ó shin bhí pictiúrchomhad á scaoileadh timpeall ar an bhFacebook le haistriúcháin droch-Ghaeilge ar roinnt frásaí ón Réaltaistear – más buan mo chuimhne ní raibh oiread is ceann amháin acu in aon neasacht do bheith ceart ná intuigthe mar Ghaeilge, ach is díol suntais é gur bhain an duine bocht ónar tháinig an iarracht thruamhéileach seo – gur bhain sé úsáid as “comhshamhlú” le “assimilate” an Bhéarla a aistriú. Léiriú maith scigphictiúrtha é seo ar an meon a bhíos ag a lán agus iad ag iarraidh “an Ghaeilge a chur in oiriúint don aonú haois fichead”: is cuma faoi cheart na comhréire, faoi dhul nádúrtha na bhfocal, is é an rud is tábhachtaí ná úsáid a bhaint as téarma nuachumtha.

Is é an chéad phrionsabal atá ag gach aon aistritheoir maith ná go bhfuil sé leis an gciall a aistriú seachas malairt focail a chur ar an mbuntéacs. Ar ndóigh más ag cur malairt teanga ar fhicsean eolaíochta ar nós an Réaltaistir atáimid, is cuid den atmaisféar iad na focail mhóra nach dtuigtear ach ar éigean. Le fírinne thig a rá nach mbíonn an cineál Béarla a labhraíos na Borg ar an Réaltaistear rónádúrtha, toisc go bhfuiltear ag tabhairt le fios gur cnuaschine, cnuasphobal agus cnuasintinn iad nach dtugann aitheantas d’indibhidiúlacht ar aon nós. Is féidir a rá go bhfuilimid i gcall Gaeilge chomh mínádúrtha céanna leis an smaoineamh seo a chur in iúl.

Mar sin féin, dá mbeinnse le Gaeilge a chur ar scannáin nó ar scéalta a bhaineas le coincheap an Réaltaistir, is dócha go mbeinn ag iarraidh téarmaí speisialta a sheachaint a fhad agus ab fhéidir.  Ar ndóigh, ní féidir déanamh in uireasa rudaí ar nós “féasar” (phaser), ach níl ina leithéidí ach ainmneacha ar rudaí nach bhfuil ann ar aon nós ach taobh istigh d’ollchruinne fhicseanúil an Réaltaistir féin – ainmneacha is féidir a dhealramh le hainmneacha dílse. Cuid de na téarmaí meafaracha is féidir iad a aistriú focal ar fhocal (wormhole mar shampla – ní thuigim cén fáth nach bhféadfainn “poll péiste” a thabhairt air as Gaeilge). Maidir leis na Borg, is dóigh liom gur fearr coincheap an assimilation a aistriú go Gaeilge gan dul i muinín leis an bhfocal “comhshamhlú”: Déanfar cuid den chnuasphobal díbh! Ní fiú cur inár n-aghaidh!

An focal resistance, dála an scéil. Cé gur chaith na Gaeil seacht n-aois laochais (seven heroic centuries,mar a dúirt Yeats) ag cur troda ar na Gaill, níor ceapadh focal ar leith le resistance a aistriú sa chiall mhíleata – ba leor do na Gaeil troid nó cath. Is é an focal a chuireas ligeadóirí agus casadóirí na téarmaíochta ar fáil dúinn inniu ná “frithbheartaíocht”, agus cé go bhfuil sé cineál trom, níl locht ar bith agamsa air. Scéal eile áfach go bhfaca mé an téarma “friotaíocht” go rómhinic sa chiall seo ag daoine ar mó a ngrá don Ghaeile ná a n-eolas uirthi. Is éard atá i gceist leis an bhfriotaíocht ná resistance na leictreoireachta. Dá mbeadh an teanga go maith ag an té a chrothnaigh uaidh an focal Gaeilge ar resistance, thuigfeadh sé go mb’fhearr an téarma a sheachaint agus an coincheap a chur in iúl le gnáthfhocal éigin (troid, cath, spairn lann…) mura bhfuil tú cinnte faoi aistriúchán ceart an téarma Béarla

Some words from dialects (a new version)

Again, this is part of a learner’s handbook I have been working on for years.

As you certainly know, Irish, albeit a small language, has several quite distinct dialects. This book uses a variety of Irish which is very close to the standard, but includes certain non-standard features of northern and western dialects.

Is dócha go bhfuil a fhios agat cheana féin chomh héagsúil is a bhíos na canúintí sa Ghaeilge, cé gur teanga neamhfhorleathan í. Tá an Ghaeilge sa leabhar seo cóngarach go maith don Chaighdeán Oifigiúil, amach ó ghnéithe áirithe neamh-Chaighdeánacha a d’fheicfeá ag na scríbhneoirí Connachtacha nó Ultacha.

Usually we acknowledge three main dialects in Irish: the northern (Ulster), the western (Connacht) and the southern (Munster) dialects. Of course these dialects are not uniform. In Munster, there are major differences between Kerry, Cork, and Ring of Waterford subdialects, and in Connacht, the dialect of northern Mayo shows similarities to Ulster Irish in vocabulary and pronunciation, although its grammar is very obviously Connacht Irish.

Is gnách trí phríomhchanúint a aithint sa Ghaeilge, mar atá, Gaeilge Chúige Uladh, nó canúint an Tuaiscirt; Gaeilge Chúige Chonnacht, nó canúint an Iarthair; agus an “Ghaelainn”, is é sin, Gaeilge Chúige Mumhan, nó canúint an Deiscirt. Ar ndóigh ní canúintí aonfhoirmeacha iad seo. I gCúige Mumhan is féidir an-difríochtaí a aithint idir na cineálacha Gaeilge a labhraítear i gCiarraí, i gContae Chorcaí agus i nGaeltacht na Rinne, agus i gCúige Chonnacht, tá canúint Thuaisceart Mhaigh Eo sách cosúil le Gaeilge Uladh ó thaobh na bhfocal is na bhfuaimeanna de, cé go bhfuil cuma láidir Chonnachtach ar an ngramadach.

Where appropriate, dialectal grammatical features will be pointed out in subsequent chapters, if they are seen in Irish books written by native speakers. Consult the following vocabularies for typical dialectal words.

Sa leabhar seo cuirfear saintréithe canúnacha na gramadaí in iúl san áit ina bhfuil gné áirithe den ghramadach faoi chaibidil, más gnách an ghné sin a bheith le haithint i nGaeilge scríofa na n-údar ar cainteoirí dúchasacha iad. Má theastaíonn focail chanúnacha uait tiocfaidh tú orthu sna foclóiríní seo leanas.

MUNSTER IRISH – GAEILGE NA MUMHAN

Munster Irish dialects are those spoken in Kerry, Co. Cork, and in Co. Waterford. When we speak of Munster Irish, this tends to mean Kerry Irish, which is the most well known one, especially due to the fact that it was the dialect of Peig Sayers. Although Munster Irish dialects are quite small in terms of native speakers, they have exerted a formidable influence on the formation of the standard language.

Is iad canúintí na Mumhan na cinn a labhraítear i gCiarraí, i gContae Chorcaí, agus i gContae Phort Láirge. Nuair a bhímid ag tagairt do Ghaeilge na Mumhan, is í Gaeilge Chiarraí is mó a bhíos i gceist againn, nó is í an chanúint sin is aithnidiúla, agus a lán daoine tar éis í a fhoghlaim ó Pheig Sayers. Cé nach bhfuil mórán cainteoirí dúchais ag na canúintí seo, bhí an-tionchar acu ar fhoirmiú na teanga caighdeánaí.

ag ‘at’ becomes ag s- before the plural article na, which accounts for such written renditions as ages na fearaibh, aiges na fearaibh, agesna fearaibh (for ag na fir) – there is no strong agreement on how the dialectal form should be written.

aige baile ‘at home’, rather than sa bhaile.

ainm ‘name’ is or can be feminine in traditional Munster Irish

áis ‘the act of borrowing’: áis ruda a thabhairt do dhuine is used as a full synonym of iasacht ruda a thabhairt do dhuine, at least in Co. Cork Irish. (In proverbs at least, áis often contrasts with iasacht – if a difference in meaning is observed, áis suggests ownership or right to use something constantly, while iasacht implies a more limited act of borrowing – one single occasion of use.) Note that even in Munster, áis does not have the figurative meaning of foreignness that iasacht has.

ansan is the Munster way to spell and pronounce ansin ‘there’. See san. Cf. anso, ansúd.

anso ‘here’ rather than anseo in Munster. See also so.

ansúd ‘out there, yonder’ rather than ansiúd in Munster.

aos is in Munster used for aois ‘age’. In other dialects aos means only ‘a class or group of people’.

aosánach – more than one non-Gaeltacht author has misperceived this Munster word to mean ‘an old person’, but in fact it means ‘adolescent’.

aosóga: ‘Young people’ is an t-aos óg in Irish, but in Kerry this has turned into a plural: na haosóga.

as ‘out of’ lenites in Kerry, where they basically say as chló instead of as cló ‘out of print’. On the other hand, in Cork Irish (at least in Cape Clear Island), as is only used with definite article. With naked nouns, they instead use the historically more correct form a, which does not lenite: a cló. It does add a hiatus h- to a noun beginning with a vowel, though.

beach ‘bee’ has the old irregular plural beachaidh, which is of course pronounced as beachaig in Munster

birdeog is a wicker basket – one of the quintessentially Kerry or Blasket words, if you ask me.

bunóc ‘small child, baby’ is a literary word used by Peig and other Blasket classics, but as far as I know it is not common in spoken Kerry Irish anymore (in other dialects, leanbh and tachrán have always been preferred). Grammatically it is feminine and behaves similarly to fuinneog and other feminines ending in -óg/-eog (genitive bunóice, plural bunóca, plural genitive bunóc).

choigin(t), chuigin(t), a choigin(t), a chuigin(t) means more or less the same as ar chor ar bith, i.e., ‘at all’. You won’t find it in Ó Dónaill’s dictionary, but rest assured that you will find it in any collection of folklore in Déise dialect (i.e., Ring of Waterford or old Tipperary Irish).

chuala(g) – The first person singular past tense of the verb clois!/cloisteáil ‘to hear’ is in the standard language chuala mé. The historically correct form is chuala without mé, but this is used only in Kerry, while Cork Irish has the form chualag, influenced by thánag ‘I came’.

chún for chomh is specifically Déise Irish. Don’t confuse it with the Connemara conjunction chúns, which is actually a chomhuain is.

comhnaos is a County Cork development of comhaois ‘the same age’ or ‘a person of the same age’

comraí is the Déise dialect form of coimirce, ‘protection, patronage’. A similar phonetic development has happened with imirce, which is imirí in Déise Irish. Notionally speaking, the process is -rce > -rche > -rghe > -rí.

contúirt or cúntúirt means ‘danger’, you say? Well why not, but in Kerry Irish it is also used to mean ‘counter’, i.e. the sales desk of a shop or a pub (cuntar in Standard Irish, and in dialects frequently cabhantar). In his poem Máistir Scoile, Michael Davitt meets his old schoolmaster in the Kerry Gaeltacht and notes that as the teacher is using the word cúntúirt in this sense, he must be a frequent visitor, being so confident in the local dialect already.

coráiste ‘courage’ is not exactly an English loan word but rather an old Norman French one, which was borrowed into both English and Irish at more or less the same time. It is common in Munster, as are words derived from it: coráistiúil, míchoráistiúil.

craimsigh!/craimsiú is a form of the verb aimsigh!/aimsiú that is sometimes used by Munster writers; the standard form is common in Munster too, though.

cuileachta is a form of cuideachta ‘company’ used in Munster in the sense of ‘jolly company, fun’. The syllable -ach- is stressed and tends to knock down the preceding syllable, so that it often sounds like cleachta.

eachtraigh!/eachtraí is a verb obviously related to eachtra ‘adventure’, but it means ‘to tell (stories)’. The idea is that of telling stories about adventures: you don’t need to experience them first-hand. Eachtraíocht means story-telling rather than an adventurous life, and the masculine noun eachtraí means ‘story-teller’, the same as scéalaí more or less – an adventurer should be called eachtránaí to keep him distinct from the eachtraí. Jules Verne was a great eachtraí, but an eachtránaí he was only in his imagination.

eagla ‘fear’ is or can be masculine in traditional Munster Irish.

is the usual form the preposition faoi takes in Munster even when written, and at least in the Irish dialect of Waterford (and in directly related, now-extinct dialects) it is used as a conjunction, meaning ‘before’. This is a long-established usage in the dialect and can even be seen in literature – Séamus Ó Maolchathaigh’s Gaeltacht autobiography An Gleann agus a Raibh ann (An Clóchomhar Tta, Baile Átha Cliath 1963/1974) is a good example. Ó Maolchathaigh grew up in South Tipperary when Irish was still spoken there natively, and his speech was the Déise dialect, of which the Irish in County Waterford is the last remnant.

feiscint rather than feiceáil is the verbal noun of feic! ‘see’. Note also the participle form feiscthe, feiscithe.

fiacha ‘debts’ is used in the sense of ‘price’ (the price paid for a thing purchased) in Munster Irish. (Less regional words for the same idea are praghas from the English word and luach ‘worth’.)

Gaolainn – Gaeilge. The name of the language itself ends in a slender -ng sound, the -l- is pronounced broad, and -ao- is a long [e] sound in the dialect. Even by writers of standard Irish or other dialects, the form Gaolainn or Gaelainn (or even Gaeluinn!) rather than Gaeilge is often used when they are (jokingly) referring to the dialect of Munster or specifically of Kerry.

garsún ‘boy’ is one of the typical Norman French words in Munster.

imirí means ‘the act of moving house, removal’ in Déise Irish. It is actually the same word as the standard term imirce ‘migration’. Cf. comraí.

iomardúil ‘difficult, rugged’ (talamh iomardúil ‘earth that is difficult to till’)

leabhair is an inflectional form of leabhar book, but it is also an adjective meaning ‘long and slender’, and very typical of Munster Irish.

leonaitheach: mar ba leonaitheach ‘as luck would have it, providentially‘. Probably a phonological development of deonaitheach (standard: deonach), which has this meaning.

leonú Dé ‘God’s will’. Probably a phonological development of deonú Dé. The verb deonaigh!/deonú means ‘to vouchsafe’.

lógóireacht means ‘lament’, ‘the act of lamenting’. It is usually supposed to be related to the noun olagón, which means more or less the same, and the underlying form would thus be *olagóireacht, but as far as I know this is just conjecture (this is why I mark it with an asterisk). I used to think that lógóireacht was confined to Ring of Waterford, i.e., to Déise Irish, but it is indeed found even in other Munster dialects.

luch ‘mouse’ has in Kerry retained the irregular plural form luchaidh (which is obviously pronounced as luchaig)

macánta means ‘nice, friendly, not angry’ in Kerry. The opposite is mallaithe. When a new schoolmistress came to teach Blasket children, parents asked whether the new teacher was macánta or mallaithe by disposition.

mairbhitíocht apathy (Kerry)

matalang is a great calamity or disaster, something like tubaiste in other dialects

meaisín can in Cúil Aodha be feminine, at least in the genitive form (na meaisíne).

Mí na Féile Bríde is the traditional name of the month of February in Kerry. Feabhra is a literary word.

mótar is the usual word for ‘car, motor-car, automobile’ in Kerry Irish.

nach is somewhat problematic. As you probably already know, instead of the verbal particle nach ‘that…not’, which eclipses, Munster Irish uses , which adds h- to a vowel, but does not change an initial consonant: ná fuil ‘that…is not’, ná hosclaíonn ‘that…doesn’t open’. However, there is such a word as nach in Munster Irish. Actually, there are two. In Kerry, nach means gach, as in the title of the memoir Nach aon saol mar a thagann sé by Caitlín P. Mhic Gearailt. In Déise, it means ach.

nóisean is the English word ‘notion’, but in Irish it has the sense of either a foolish notion or an infatuation: thug sé nóisean don chailín = thug sé teasghrá don chailín. Typical of Munster Irish, especially Kerry; and of course, ‘notion’ is used similarly in much of Hiberno-English.

nótáilte (which becomes nótálta in Munster, or even nótáltha) means ‘great, cool’ in the dialect – i.e. it is an adjective of praise that tends to be somewhat overused

ó ‘from’ combines in Munster with plural na into ósna (rather than standard ó na) ‘from the…’: ósna fearaibh ‘from the men’

oiriúnaigh!/oiriúnú This I first thought to be a somewhat literary verb coined to cover the meaning of cur in oiriúint, i.e. to adapt something to something else, but in Kerry, it is part of the natural spoken language and means ‘to suit’, when talking about clothes. It takes a direct object: oiriúnaíonn na bróga san thú ‘those shoes suit you’ (other dialects say feileann/oireann/fóireann na bróga sin duit). In the dialect it is usually pronounced without the initial oi-.

ráinig is usually only used in the past tense, and it means “reached” or “happened” (more commonly current words would be shroich and tharla, respectively). It is not entirely uncommon to see other forms of the verb such as ráingeoinn or ráineoinn (‘I would reach’) in Irish written by Munster authors, but the past tense is by far the most common form.

réiltin rather than réalta is the usual word for ‘star’ in Kerry. Note that the -t- after the -l- is pronounced as [h], thus réilthín makes sense in the dialect (but if you wanted to be consistent about this, you’d end up writing, say, cuimilth for cuimilt).

rúcach for ‘greenhorn, rookie, newbie’ is found in Munster native literature and must rank as an acceptable Irish word, although obviously an English borrowing to start with. An absolute beginner, newbie or newcomer is rúcach dearg, a ‘red rookie’. It can also refer to raw recruits (policemen or soldiers), as you will find out by reading Pádraig Ua Maoileoin’s delightful little book about his Garda Síochána years, De Réir Uimhreacha.

saghas is originally the English word ‘size’, but it means ‘kind, sort’ in Munster, where it is an old loanword. (In Ulster, it does occur in the sense ‘size’, when talking about clothes or shoes, but up there it is a recent borrowing.)

sáipéal is how they pronounce séipéal ‘chapel’ in Kerry. Even in books aimed at reproducing authentic dialect, the word is not usually spelt like this, however.

san rather than sin is used for ‘that’, when the preceding word ends in a broad consonant: an fear san, an bhean san. Similarly, ansan rather than ansin ‘there’.

scamhard for ‘nourishment, nutrition‘ is recommended even by standard dictionaries, with the Foclóir Póca and Foclóir Scoile giving the spelling pronunciation [skauərd]. However, in Munster, where this word is used in dialect, the pronunciation is more like [skəwa:rd], the second syllable being both long and stressed. Thus, writing it scamhárd would give a better idea of the actual pronunciation.

scéaltóireacht instead of scéalaíocht ‘story-telling’ is often enough encountered in Munster Irish. The corresponding word for ‘a story-teller’, scéaltóir, does exist in the dialect too, but is in my opinion less common – I’d say scéalaí is just fine even in Munster. Note that Munster Irish also has the verb eachtraigh!/eachtraí.

seim!/seimint is used instead of the standard seinn!/seinm ‘to play (music)’.

seoigh: this word needs some explanation. In Munster, masculine nouns ending in a vowel are frequently perceived to have an inbuilt final -gh or -dh, which is not pronounced, but which changes into -igh/-idh in the genitive case, and this is in Munster Irish pronounced quite audibly as if written -ig. This produces such genitives as for instance sneachtaig from sneachta ‘snow’ (the speaker thinks of sneachta as sneachtadh or sneachtagh). Now, in a similar way, seó (basically a loan from English ‘show’) ‘show, fun, great amount’ has in Munster developed the genitive form seoigh. This has then come to be perceived as an adjective and acquired a generally positive meaning, something like ‘great, cool, wonderful’. Adverbial use with gogo seoigh ‘greatly, wonderfully’ – is allowed, and common.

sid can be used instead of seo in copula constructions where seo comes first: seo é an scéal or sid é an scéal. It is an attempt to avoid the hiatus (clash of two vowels) in seo é. It has some currency even in written Irish and in contexts where one would expect standard Irish. So, if you see sid é… where there should be seo é…, it is vintage Munster dialect, not a misprint for sin é.

slí often means ‘room, space, elbow-room’ in Munster

so is used instead of seo ‘this’ when the preceding word ends in a broad consonant: an fear so, an bhean so. Note also anso ‘here’.

sóinseáil means ‘change’ in Munster – not just changing money, but also a change of weather. This is one example of how Munster Irish tends to prefer Norman French-derived words.

súd rather than siúd is used after a broad consonant, and similarly, ansúd is preferred to the standard ansiúd ‘out there, yonder’.

tar!/teacht can mean “become, get” at least in some Munster varieties, notably in Cork Irish: do thánag tuirseach ‘I got tired’ (less provincial usages are tháinig tuirse orm, thuirsigh mé and d’éirigh mé tuirseach)

téana is a defective verb meaning ‘come (along), go (along)’. Its most common forms imperative téana ‘come along!’ and first person plural subjunctive present téanam ‘let’s go!’ According to Ó Dónaill’s dictionary, it has a verbal noun, téanachtaint, but I have no idea of ever having seen that form anywhere else.

thána(g) – The first person singular past tense of the verb tar!/teacht ‘to come’ is in the standard language tháinig mé. The historically correct synthetic form is thánag, but it has survived only in Cork. In Kerry thána is used instead.

tómas used in the expression i dtómas ‘intended for’ (= le haghaidh, i gcómhair)

tosnaigh!/tosnú is the Kerry variant of tosaigh!/tosú ‘to begin’

trácht!/trácht means, as you should know, ‘to remark, to comment, to mention’, and it usually takes the preposition ar: thrácht sé orm ‘he mentioned me’. In Munster, though, we also see thar: thrácht sé tharam. This is most probably influenced by the fact that the verb tar!/teacht ‘to come’ means ‘to mention’ when used with thar: tháinig sé tharam ‘he mentioned me’.

turlabhait is a very expressive word meaning something like a crashing or bashing sound

varnáil for ‘warning’ is quite an old and established loanword in Munster Irish, but foláireamh is also used. Note that even the verb ordaigh!/ordú can mean ‘to warn’ in Munster.

CONNACHT IRISH – GAEILGE CHONNACHT

Connacht Irish is spoken in Connemara, the Aran Islands and Mayo.

airdeall is the preferred word for being in a state of alarm, alertness. Other dialects might prefer faichill and aire.

aire ‘attention, heed’ does exist in Connacht, of course – especially in the expression aire a ghoin. Ó Dónaill’s dictionary suggests that the correct way to combine goin!/goin ‘to wound, to sting, to hurt’ and aire would be ghoin a aire é ‘he pricked up his ears, became alert’ (literally ‘his attention hurt/stung him’), but my impression is that the usual way to use it is ghoin sé m’aire ‘it attracted (literally ‘stung’) my attention’, a very common expression in Connacht literature.

aiteall is a lull between two showers of rain (in Ulster, it would be turadh)

aithneachtáil rather than aithint is the verbal noun of aithin! ‘recognize!’

amharc is in Ulster a verb (‘look, watch’), but in Connacht, it is usually just a noun (‘sight, vision’). The Connemara pronunciation sounds more like afrac.

amhdaigh!/amhdachtáil ‘admit, acknowledge’ (standard admhaigh!/admháil)

bailigh!/bailiú in the sense of ‘going away’ (bhailigh sé leis for d’imigh sé leis, tá sé bailithe for tá sé imithe) is Connemara Irish, according to Séamas Ó Murchú’s An Teanga Bheo – Gaeilge Chonamara. Personally, it is my impression that this usage is not confined to Connemara, but I bow my head to superior authority.

beatha ‘life’ also means ‘food’ in Connemara. The allitterative expression bia is beatha is not confined to Connacht Irish, however.

bodóg is a heifer, i.e. a female calf, a young cow (colpach and seafaid are more typical of Ulster and Munster respectively; I remember I have seen some writers trying to assign different shades of meaning to these three words, but I perceive that it is above all a dialect difference)

breathnaigh!/breathnú of course means ‘to look, to watch’, but it also means ‘to look’ in the sense of having a particular appearance. As Séamas Ó Murchú points out in An Teanga Bheo – Gaeilge Chonamara, this usage, although basically Anglicistic, is well-established in traditional dialects (and in my opinion, even in literary language). Note though that for ‘appearance’, the noun cuma is also commonly used in Connemara: tá sé ag breathnú go maith can be expressed by tá cuma mhaith air.

brocach ‘dirty’, ‘filthy’

bústa is an adjective meaning ‘crude, clumsy’. Pádhraic Óg Ó Conaire uses this word a lot.

caidéis is a word I first encountered in Connacht Irish and which according to Ó Dónaill means ‘inquisitiveness’. It is my impression that caidéis is the best Irish word for the kind of inquisitiveness we usually associate with gossip magazines, i.e. voyeurist interest in other people’s private business. Myself, I am in the habit of calling gossip rags liarlóga caidéise.

cailleach means, of course, an old woman, a witch, a hag; but it also has the sense of a snug – a private room in a pub, that is. I first encountered the word in this sense in Máirtín Ó Cadhain’s celebrated novel Cré na Cille, and although the writer was happy to enrich his language with influences from all other dialects as well as Scots Gaelic and classical Irish, it seems to me that his Irish is for the most part narrowly dialectal to a fault, so my educated guess is that cailleach in this sense is vintage Connemara. The other word proposed by dictionaries is cúlán; the raw loanword snug has been spotted in Munster literature.

caoi (a feminine noun) is the state of repair a thing is in, or the state of health you are in. Note that in Irish it is said to be upon (ar) something or somebody: tá caoi mhaith air ‘it/he is in a good state’. The usual way to ask how you are is, in Connacht, cén chaoi a bhfuil tú, of course. In Ulster, bail is used in much the same way as caoi in Connacht.

ceap!/ceapadh means ‘to think’ in Connemara. This is not as obvious as you might think, because in other dialects the connotation ‘to catch’ might be stronger. As languages go it is quite common that a verb originally meaning ‘to catch’ acquires the sense of thinking or understanding.

cé is moite de, cés moite de is the usual Connacht expression for ‘except for, apart from’. Synonyms from other dialects include díomaite de and amach ó.

céardós ‘what kind of?’ Even cén sórt is used in the dialect, of course.

‘chuile is how gach uile ‘every single…’ is usually pronounced (and sometimes written) in Connemara: ‘chuile shórt. In a similar way, gach aon is pronounced ‘chaon.

chúns or chún’s is the same as a chomhuain is, which is a conjunction meaning ‘while’, ‘at the same time when’.

cinnt – The verb cinn!/cinneadh (ar rud) usually means ‘to decide’. However, in Connacht there is the following construction with a special form of the verbal noun: Bhí sé ag cinnt orm (rud a dhéanamh) meaning ‘I could not (do something), I was unable (to do something)’, i.e. I was overpowered by the task, I couldn’t do it. Some speakers interpret the verbal noun as a verbal adjective, i.e. Bhí sé cinnte orm (rud a dhéanamh).

comhluadar ‘company’ can mean ‘family’ in Connacht

croch!/crochadh means in Connacht ‘to lift, to pick up, to take, to carry off’.

cruóg means ‘urgent need, necessity, hurry’. Note that in Ulster there is a similar word which is basically a form of crua-ae, ‘liver’, and is typically used in plural in the sense of ‘guts, intestines’

cuisliméara (or, if we stick to the standard morphology, cuisliméir) ‘customer’

drochmhúinte is used of ill-mannered animals in Ulster, but in Connemara it refers more to angry and ill-tempered human beings. A teacher who has no patience with children is drochmhúinte in Connemara – in Kerry, he would probably be said to be mallaithe.

fainic means ‘warning’, and it is also what you shout when you see someone in danger. Personally, I would prefer to see FAINIC! rather than RABHADH! on Irish-language warning signs, because it conveys more immediacy. (In dialects which do not use the word fainic, I guess the most idiomatic way to say ‘look out!’ or ‘beware!’ is seachain! – literally, ‘avoid!’)

fairnéis, fáirnéis ‘information’ (standard faisnéis). This form (with -r-) is most typical of Northern Mayo Irish. The vowel -a- is regularly lengthened before -rn-, and this does actually not need to be pointed out by using the acute accent.

fearacht ‘like, as, similar to’ is typically used in Connacht; it’s the kind of word you’d see Máirtín Ó Cadhain or Pádhraic Óg Ó Conaire use. It looks like a noun, but is basically a preposition requiring genitive; it can also take a possessive adjective (m’fhearacht féin ‘like myself’). In Ulster, dálta (basically a plural form of dáil ‘circumstance, matter’) is used similarly.

feilméara (or if we prefer to use it in the context of a more standardized morphology, feilméir) is the Connemara word for ‘farmer’ (feirmeoir in standard Irish). Similarly, a farm is feilm rather than feirm.

foscadh (pronounced more like fascadh) is the preferred word for ‘shelter’ (against wind, as well as against machine-gun fire). Foscadh is also used in Ulster. In Munster, fothain is typical.

inseacht rather than insint is the verbal noun of inis! ‘tell!’

luath or luas is found in the expression an dá luath is, an dá luas is, which is used as a conjunction; it means basically ‘as soon as’, but the idea of the expression is more like ‘twice as soon/fast as’. It is an expression typically used by Máirtín Ó Cadhain.

mícháta ‘bad press, bad reputation, bad rap’

múr, múraíl is a heavy rain (in Ulster it would be called bailc, and in Munster it is tulca). Note that with some words (such as múr) the ending -(a)íl is at least in Connemara perceived to be a plural ending.

ní mé can in Connacht mean, idiomatically, ‘I wonder’. I don’t think this is etymologically related to the ‘(is) not’, but at least Pádraic Breathnach does use, by analogy, níorbh é in the sense ‘he wondered’.

orlár ‘floor’, pronounced with a diphthong, [aurla:r], due to first syllable lengthening. Urlár is the standard form.

radharc: this is at least in some Connacht dialects pronounced with an [au] diphthong, as though written ramharc or rabharc. This is obviously due to influence from amharc.

rite: rachadh sé rite liom (rud a dhéanamh) ‘I would find it difficult (to do something)’. This is a nice idiomatic expression I am happy to make frequent use of, and it is vintage Connacht Irish, especially typical of Tuar Mhic Éadaigh (Tourmakeady).

roimh: Usually Irish distinguishes between sula (sara) ‘before’ as conjunction (as in ‘before I did this, I did that other thing’) and roimh ‘before’ as preposition (‘before this’, ‘before that’). However, I have seen roimh used as a conjunction in folklore texts from Northern Mayo. Whether it only was the personal quirk of one seanchaí or a more widespread dialectal trait, I cannot say; the Déise dialect for ‘before’ in Munster is much more established in literature.

sclábhaí: In the dictionary sense, sclábhaí means ‘slave’. However, it also has the sense of ‘labourer’, and similarly, sclábhaíocht means ‘work’ in the McJob sense, that is, unskilled work just for making some money. Diarmuid Ó Sé suggests in An Teanga Bheo – Corca Dhuibhne that this is a particularly Munster usage, but I associate it with Connemara, and so does Mícheál Ó Siadhail in his Learning Irish.

seilp ‘shelf’ (standard seilf)

sinneán ‘a sudden breeze of wind’ (standard soinneán)

sinseáil ‘change, small money, the act of changing money, the act of cashing a cheque’ (standard, or Munster, sóinseáil. Note that Ulster prefers briseadh)

sul má is the Connemara form of sula ‘before’. When there is a future form in the main clause, sul má is followed by the direct relative form of the future tense: sul má thiocfas sé abhaile…And note that this form is lenited. Sula eclipses, in the standard language.

tar éis ‘after’ is found in the dialect in many forms: th’éis, ar théis, thar éis and so on. It can be used as a conjunction: tar éis is (go/nach/gur/nár…) ‘although…’, ‘even if…’

tilleadh ‘addition, more’ (standard tuilleadh)

toisigh!/toisiú is used in Mayo for tosaigh!/tosú ‘to begin’

tothlaigh!/tothlú ‘to crave, to desire’ – not that this is particularly common in Connacht either, but I have only seen it in Connacht literature – in Colm Ó Gaora’s autobiography Mise, which is basically Ros Muc Irish.

trust!/trust ‘to trust’ is an old borrowing in this dialect, probably originally felt to be necessary because people are unsure of the correct use of muinín with verbs and prepositions. Of old, you use the preposition as with it: níl muinín ar bith agam as an ruifíneach sin ‘I don’t trust that ruffian’, but under the influence of English, the use with i has made inroads into the language, so such usage as ní chuirfinn muinín ar bith sa ruifíneach sin ‘I wouldn’t put any trust in that ruffian’ is common and acceptable today (although I would prefer ní bheadh muinín ar bith agam as an ruifíneach sin or ní dhéanfainn muinín ar bith as an ruifíneach sin). Trust is a transitive verb as in English: ní thrustfainn é ‘I wouldn’t trust him’ (if you don’t like Anglicisms, feel free to use ní dhéanfainn muinín ar bith as instead). Note that the noun trust can be used in similar constructions as muinín: ní bheadh mórán trusta agam as or ní bheadh mórán muiníne agam as ‘I wouldn’t put much trust in him’.

údan can be used instead of úd ‘that there, yon’.

úmachan is used as a verbal noun in the sense ‘to prepare, preparation, for a journey’. It does not seem to have finite verb forms. In Ulster, at least in Lár Thír Chonaill, úmaigh!/úmú is used in the same sense.

ULSTER IRISH – GAEILGE ULADH

ábhar can mean ‘reason’, and often does

achan [axan ~ ahan] is the usual way to pronounce (and often, to write) gach aon ‘every single…’

in achomaireacht: Many non-natives are unhappy with the way how the English ‘before long’ has been translated into sul i bhfad, roimh i bhfad or sara fada in Irish. These loan translations, although at variance with Irish grammar, are so entrenched in native spoken Irish that I don’t think it is realistic to get rid of them. However, if you still want to avoid them, you can use in achomaireacht for translating ‘before long’. Remember though that it is very emphatically an Ulster expression – I think I have seen it only in Leaslaoi Lúcás’s vocabulary of Ros Goill words (Cnuasach Focal as Ros Goill, published in 1986 by Royal Irish Academy/Acadamh Ríoga na hÉireann, Dublin/Baile Átha Cliath), as well as in Cosslett Ó Cuinn’s translations of Wild West adventures originally written in Spanish (Ó Cuinn was known to have picked up much of his Irish from the last remaining speakers of the East Ulster dialects; he spelt the expression in achmaireacht, which even according to Leaslaoi Lúcás is more like the actual pronunciation in the dialect).

aibhleoga is what embers, glowing coals are called in Ulster Irish. Other dialects prefer sméaróidí.

áiméar opportunity, chance

airneál (rather than the standard airneán) is the word for staying awake late, especially with other people. Some speakers interpret it as a feminine, ending in -áil, but in my opinion it should be a masculine noun, airneáil being the genitive form.

aithne is in Ulster used both for ‘acquaintance’ and ‘the act of recognizing’, i.e. as the verbal noun of the verb aithin! ‘recognize!’ In the standard language, the verbal noun is aithint. Note the Ulster expression tá sé as aithne used of a corpse that is so mangled or rotten that the person cannot be recognized – in the standard language it would be tá sé as aithint.

Albanach is of course a Scotsman, but in Ulster it is felt to mean, above all, an Ulster Protestant. So, in order to point out that somebody is indeed a real Scotsman or -woman from Scotland, not a local Protestant, you might need to say duine/fear/bean as Albain instead.

amharc!/amharc is a full verb in Ulster, and the usual one for ‘to look, to watch’ along with coimhéad. It is often worn down in pronunciation, so that you might perceive it as amhanc or onc.

apaí is used for aibí ‘ripe, mature’. Similarly, the verb ‘to ripen’ is apaigh!/apú.

ar son means ‘for’ in the sense ‘in return for’, while in other dialects as and as ucht are used in that sense, ar son meaning ‘for the sake of’ (a cause, for instance). As a rule, Ulster Irish is more fond of compound prepositions than of simple ones. In the sense ‘for the sake of’, Ulster prefers ar mhaithe le or i bhfách le, which in the dialect sound almost the same anyway.

araicis: in araicis ‘coming to meet someone’, or even, in a more figurative sense, ‘as a concession to someone’: chuaigh mé go dtí an t-aerfort ina araicis ‘I went to the airport to meet him there (i.e., so that I’d be there when he came)’, caithfidh an dá phobal i dTuaisceart Éireann teacht in araicis a chéile ‘the two communities in Northern Ireland must make concessions to each other’. The related adjective araiciseach is not as peaceful in meaning: somebody can be araiciseach chun troda, which means he is quite happy to have a fist-fight whenever there is an occasion. The underlying idea is probably that he is happy to come forward to meet his adversary in a fight.

bailc ‘heavy rain’

ballaíocht ‘guess, guesstimate’, but also ‘(shallow) acquaintance’: tá ballaíocht aithne agam ar Sheán means that I know Seán in the sense of knowing who he is and maybe saying him hello, but that we are not anywhere near to being close friends.

ball bán is ‘dawn, daybreak’: tháinig ball bán ar an lá.

barúil rather than tuairim is used in the sense of ‘opinion’. Note the typically Ulster expressions tá mé barúlach and tá mé inbharúla ‘I am of the opinion (that…)’, which you can use if you dislike the obviously English-calqued tá mé den tuairim/bharúil.

beadaí ‘fastidious about food’. It is nowadays recommended to use this word as a noun to translate ‘gourmet’; I can’t say I am particularly unhappy with this recommendation, although I am only familiar with adjectival usage from the works of native writers. Tormasach comes near beadaí in meaning.

bealach ‘way’ often means ‘direction’ and is used practically as a preposition meaning ‘towards, facing’, followed by a genitive noun: d’amharc sé bealach na farraige ‘he looked towards the sea, seawards’. In the concrete and tangible meaning ‘way, road’, Ulster Irish typically uses bealach mór, even when the road isn’t particularly wide, big or important. In fact, I would not hesitate to use bealach mór beag in the sense of ‘small road’ if I was trying to imitate Ulster Irish, because bealach mór is a very entrenched expression in the dialect and probably perceived to be one single word.

biadh is the Ulster form of bia ‘food’ and has the genitive form bídh: an biadh, an bhídh.

bladhaire is the particularly Ulster word for ‘flame’ – lasair is more commonly understood.

bligh!/blí is the verb for milking a cow – note that the standard form of the verbal noun is bleán.

bliotach is a possible way to pronounce briotach, but even in books attempting to reproduce authentic dialect it is seldom written with -l-.

bocsa rather than bosca is how the word for ‘box’ is pronounced in Ulster

bodhránacht an lae is a vintage Ulster expression for ‘daybreak, dawn’. Note also camhaoir and ball bán.

brachán is in Ulster used for ‘porridge’. This is masculine, of course; the word preferred in other dialects, leite, is feminine and has the genitive leitean.

breast thú! This is probably based on beir as thú and means something like ‘get out of here’ in the figurative sense, i.e. ‘come on, you can’t possibly mean that seriously’. I have the impression though that it is ruder and more impolite than the English equivalent.

briseadh ‘change, small money’. The word sóinseáil, cognate with the English word ‘change’, is not typical of Ulster Irish. Note that the verb bris!/briseadh in Ulster also has the sense of cashing a cheque, seic a bhriseadh.

bunrúta ‘origin’, ‘reason’. The word rúta is an old loan from the English word ‘root’, so the word means something like ‘basic root’.

buaidh, genitive buaidhe is used for bua, victory, and it is feminine. The historically important Irish-language organization Glúin na Buaidhe ‘The Generation of Victory’ was named by an Ulsterman or an Ulster dialect enthusiast – in the present standard it would have been Glúin an Bhua.

bunadh ‘original inhabitants, people’ (of a place) is typically Ulster Irish, but muintir is also known and used in the dialect.

cáidheach ‘dirty’, also in the figurative sense of playing dirty, dirty tricks. Obviously the more mainstream word for ‘dirty’, salach, is also part of the dialect. A slender -r- between vowels tends to be softened into a -y- sound in the dialect (this is why Máire Brennan nowadays writes her first name Moya), but on the other hand, Ulster dialect speakers attempting to speak in a polished way can hypercorrectly insert an audible -r- into this word, i.e. pronounce it as if written cáidhreach.

cáipéis or cáipís ‘document’ means ‘crime’ at least in Central Donegal Irish – this is because it is perceived to refer to a legal document or writ, such as a summons or an act of accusation. Even in other Ulster dialects, it is frequently used in phrases where it means responsibility for a crime.

céadna: ‘(the) same’ is céanna in mainstream Irish, but Ulster writers prefer céadna. The actual pronunciation in the dialect is more like céarna or ciarna, though.

ceol of course means ‘music’, but in Ulster Irish there is a tendency to use it as a verb meaning ‘to sing’. As far as I can tell, though, it is only used in past tense (cheol sí amhrán ‘she sang a song’) and as a verbal noun (amhrán a cheol ‘to sing a song’). I would not venture to use such forms as *ceolann, *ceolfaidh or *cheolfadh.

cha(n), char, charbh is sometimes used instead of ní, níor, níorbh, i.e. as a negation. Note the following rules for applying it:

  • The form cha(n) usually lenites (chan fhuil, cha ghlanann sé, cha chaitheann sé), but it does not affect an initial s- (cha samhlaíonn sé, cha suíonn sé), it eclipses rather than lenites initial d- and t- (cha dtugann sé, cha ndéanann sé – although the latter probably becomes cha ndéan sé or cha dtéan sé in Ulster). The forms of the verb beginning with b- can be lenited or eclipsed (cha mbíonn/cha bhíonn, cha mbíodh/cha mbíodh).
  • The future form should not be used with cha(n), because the -ann/-íonn present forms after cha(n) have a future meaning: cha ghlanann means both ní ghlanann and ní ghlanfaidh.
  • Cha(n) should primarily not be used in answering questions, but rather in either echoing or negating a statement. Níl maith ar bith ann. – Leoga chan fhuil! ‘It’s no good. – Indeed it isn’t.’ But: An bhfuil maith ar bith ann? – Níl. ‘Is it any good? – No, it isn’t.’

This set of rules for using cha(n) is not strict (note that not even all Ulster speakers use cha[n]), but if you want to use this particle in your own Irish in a way that is widely acceptable as traditional native language, these rules are as good an approximation as any.

Above I said that you should not use future forms with cha[n], but you should be warned that at least for some subdialects or some speakers the ‘present’ form used with cha[n] is actually a future form with present ending -ann substituted for the future -f [a]idh. Thus, you should not be puzzled to find chan gheobhann for ‘won’t get/find’ (rather than chan fhaigheann with the correct present form) in written representations of Ulster Irish dialects.

The future sense of cha[n] + present form is so strong that in Ulster Irish you might also encounter present forms after nach ‘that…not’, where you expect a future form – i.e. even after nach the present form feels kind of future-ish. However, one of the most irritating shibboleths of non-native Irish is using English-modelled present tense (indicative) in subordinate clauses where future (or present subjunctive) would be more called for, so this is an Ulster usage I would not prefer to imitate – to those not familiar with the dialect it feels quite wrong.

chun is in Ulster typically a preposition of direction, movement to a goal, used with nouns. It is usually not used with verbal nouns in such constructions as chun rud a dhéanamh – in Ulster dialect le rud a dhéanamh is preferred. It is usually pronounced as ‘un. Note that Ulster writers still might prefer chun an bhaile for abhaile ‘home’ – this is because in Ulster you still hear the preposition there, at least as ‘n. Even ‘na bhaile can be seen, as in the Irish title of Cathal Ó Searcaigh’s book Homecoming, i.e., An Bealach ‘na Bhaile.

ciothram or cithréim is a physical deformity, such as cam reilige, which means a club-foot. Note that although diseases are on you (ort) in Irish, cam reilige is said to be in you (ionat) in Irish, because it is an innate characteristic rather than a transient contagion.

cladhaire is a coward. Meatachán is also used.

cliú ‘fame, repute’ rather than the standard form clú

colpach is in my opinion the preferred word for ‘heifer, young cow, female calf’ in Ulster. (Bodóg is more typically Connacht, seafaid is Munster Irish. The difference is in my opinion primarily one of dialect, although some writers do make an attempt to assign different shades of meaning to the words.) Note the expression comhrá na colpaí, unnecessary, prolonged, time-wasting or idle conversation of the kind that makes you uncomfortable and impatient – such as so-called small talk often tends to be.

comh or gomh is how they pronounce chomh ‘as’ in Ulster. The former you often see in writing, the latter seems to be confined to folklore volumes attempting to represent the dialectal pronunciation with the greatest fidelity.

compal means ‘district, locality’ in Ulster dialects – more or less the same as ceantar. This may be the reason why timpeallán tráchta seems to be preferred to compal tráchta as the term for ‘traffic roundabout’ by northern writers of Irish.

conlán was used in the sense ‘family’ in East Ulster Irish (the official form teaghlach is also used by vintage Ulster writers). It is related to the verb conlaigh!/conlú (or conlaigh!/conlach) ‘to glean’. Note the idiomatic expression ar do chonlán féin ‘on your own’.

corradh ‘a little more (than)’. Tá sé corradh is fiche bliain d’aois ‘he’s a little older than twenty’.

cruóga or cruógaí means ‘intestines, guts, internal organs’, and is a development of crua-ae ‘liver’. Keep it distinct from the quintessentially Connacht word cruóg, which is usually only used in singular and means ‘dire necessity, immediate need, hurry, the state of being pressed with work’.

dlí ‘law’ is in Ulster pronounced as if written dlíodh, i.e. [d’l’i:u], and there is an audible difference between that and the genitive form dlídh. Note the Ulster expression an dlí[odh] a sheasamh, ‘to be prosecuted, to stand trial’, word for word ‘to stand the law’: somebody who is prosecuted, is said to be ‘standing the law’, ag seasamh an dlí[dh]. The more official expression is word for word translated from English: triail a sheasamh, ag seasamh trialach.

dlítheoir rather than the standard form dlíodóir is used by Ulster writers for ‘lawyer’.

doctúir rather than dochtúir is how this word is pronounced in Ulster. Also, bocsa rather than bosca in the dialect.

dóigh is the usual word for ‘way’ in the abstract sense, i.e., the way to do or accomplish something. When you say Tá dóigh ar leith air, it means that something must be done in a particular way, and that that way must be learned. You could say Tá dóigh ar leith ar an Ghaeilge (in Ulster, ar an Ghaeilge rather than ar an nGaeilge), i.e., Irish is something you must learn to tackle, and the poor struggling learner could answer, for instance, Abair é! – or D’fhéadfá a rá! – both used in the sense of the English expression ‘You don’t say!’ And if someone learns to use Irish both well and in an original, special way, you will say: Tá dóigh ar leith aige siúd ar an Ghaeilge! (Or, in a more dialect-neutral language, …ar an nGaeilge!).

Note ar dóigh ‘excellent’. Keep it distinct from ar dhóigh ‘in a way’ and ar ndóigh ‘of course’.

drochmhúinte: this adjective means, word for word translated, ‘badly taught, badly educated, badly schooled, ill-mannered’, but in Ulster it is most typically used of animals. A vicious animal, such as a dog which would bite you, is said to be drochmhúinte in the dialect. Some writers use the form drochainte, which suggests a heavily worn-down everyday speech form. Note also the related noun drochmhúnas, drochanas for ‘viciousness in animals’. In Munster, they’d probably say mallaithe rather than drochmhúinte.

druid!/drud: This verb has in the standard language the verbal noun druidim, and for most Irish speakers it means ‘to move towards’ or ‘to move away’ – but always in the sense of movement relative to another position (had Einstein been a native speaker of Irish he might have said that according to his theory all gluaiseacht is some kind of druidim). Most typically, it means ‘to close in, to close upon’, but it can also mean ‘to shirk away from, to move away’, if an appropriate preposition is used (a famous example is the motto of the 69th Infantry Regiment of the New York National Guard, Riamh nár dhruid ó spairn lann, ‘[the ones] who never shirked armed conflict’ – note the way the word riamh, ‘ever’, is placed in the beginning – this is because it’s poetry, obviously that word should come last, or at least after the verb, if it was prose). However, in Ulster the verbal noun is drud – you can also see it written druid, but this is because it is often pronounced as [drïd], thus as if written draod but with a short vowel – and up there the verb mostly means ‘to close, to shut (a door, for instance)’. For ‘close in, close upon’ Ulster Irish prefers the verb teann!/teannadh. (And, according to the Ó Dónaill dictionary, even this verb can refer to relative movement away from something, too.)

eadar is how idir ‘between’ is written in Ulster literature (and pronounced by Ulster speakers)

: when I was just a rúcach dearg as an Irish-speaker, I was told by an Ulster friend that was used for ‘about’, faoi for ‘under’. I am not dead sure about this, because my experience is that fá, faoi, fé and can be used interchangeably in older literature, with the phonetic environment being more important than the shade of meaning. However, note that for ‘about’ we use fá dtaobh de in Ulster (that’s how it is written, but in practice do is the pronunciation of the last part).

fad: in the sense ‘this far’ we can normally use a fhad seo, but in Ulster literature it is common enough to see fad le, a fhad le used as a pure preposition in the sense ‘to (a place)’, without trying to emphasize the sense of ‘…and no further’.

fiacha, the plural of fiach ‘debt’, means in Ulster ‘compulsion’: ní raibh d’fhiacha orm é a dhéanamh ‘I did not need to do it, I was under no compulsion to do it’. The “official” word iallach (dialectally iachall) is not found in vintage Ulster speech as far as I know. Note that in Munster Irish fiacha means an entirely different thing – the price of a purchase (the standard word is the Anglicism praghas, while even luach can be used in this sense).

fríd is the Ulster form of trí ‘through’. In standard Irish the -d is added to the preposition only before the singular definite article, but in Ulster it always has the -d – this is part of a wider tendency for the third-person singular masculine form of the preposition to oust the basic form of the preposition. (As dialects go it is for instance quite common to pronounce ó ‘from’ the same as uaidh ‘from him/it’, and as it was noted here under Munster Irish, the preposition as ‘out of’ originally had the form a, but this was since ousted by as ‘out of him/it’ in all dialects except Cork Irish.)

gabh: it is common in Connacht for forms of gabh!/gabháil to be used in the sense of ‘go’, but in Ulster gabh! has the sense of ‘come!’ rather than ‘go!’ Note though that even in Ulster, as in Connemara, dul has been superseded by ghoil, a permanently lenited and worn-down form of gabháil. The interesting word maram go…, which you often encounter in the books by Seán Bán Mac Meanman, means something like ‘I warrant that…’ and it is basically slurred speech for gabhaim orm go…

gábh or gábhadh ‘danger’. Another dialect word for this is guais.

Gaeilg or Gaeilic is how Gaeilge (the nominative form) is pronounced in Ulster, i.e. it ends in a consonant (and has a schwa vowel between the -l- and the -g, but that is a regular thing in Irish pronunciation). The genitive form takes the -e, of course.

gaibhte: this is how gafa is usually written in books by Ulster authors. In his book on Ulster Irish (An Teanga Bheo: Gaeilge Uladh), Dónall P. Ó Baoill prefers goite as a clue to the true pronunciation.

gasta is the usual word for ‘fast’ and is also used in the sense of ‘quick-witted, intelligent’. At least some Ulster writers use (níos, is) gaiste as a comparative/superlative form.

gaosán is the usual word for ‘nose’ in Ulster (other dialects obviously prefer srón). Note the expression ní dhéarfadh sé le haon duine gur cham a ghaosán ‘he wouldn’t remark on anyone’s crooked nose’ (or, ‘that his nose was crooked’) means that the person is very meek, gentle and never says anything bad of anyone. On the other hand, if you say or do something in ainneoin a ghaosáin or in ainneoin chnámh a ghaosáin, i.e. despite his nose, or despite his nasal bone, you are doing it just to annoy him. (In Connacht Irish, you would do it le stainc air.) Tá a ghaosán ag cur air means that he is nosy, too interested in other people’s affairs.

geafta is the usual literary Ulster form of geata ‘gate’. Dónall P. Ó Baoill also gives geamhta, pronounced with a diphthong, but I have never encountered that form written in Ulster literature.

geasróg means, according to Ó Dónaill’s dictionary, ‘spell, charm, superstition’, but Seán Bán Mac Meanman uses the expression geasróga a leagan in the special sense of spells cast by young girls on Halloween night or Oíche Shamhna to find out the name of their future husband. I don’t say the expression only refers to love-spells, I rather think it refers to spells involving the handling of some kind of concrete objects rather than just uttering magic words. The Halloween charms described by Seán Bán usually involved punanna, i.e. sheaves (bundles of cereal plants). Punann is a feminine word, declined as the many nouns ending in -óg (genitive punainne, plural punanna, plural genitive punann).

gráice is the irregular comparative/superlative form of gránna ‘ugly, vile, wretched’: níos gráice, is gráice, ní ba ghráice, ba ghráice. The abstract noun gráiceacht ‘ugliness, vileness, wretchedness’ also exists in the dialect. As far as I know, these are not used outside Ulster.

guthán for ‘telephone’ is one of the words that tend to be derided as artificial neologisms, and noting that teileafón is an established international word in Irish with cognates in most modern languages, it does feel somewhat superfluous. However, the first time I encountered this word was not in literature, but in conversation with a native speaker from Donegal, and even subsequently, I have had the impression that it is more common and accepted in the Irish of northern speakers. A mobile phone is guthán póca.

ínteach(t), ínneach(t) is the usual Ulster word for éigin, ‘some’. You often see éighinteach or some similar, older literary spelling in Ulster literature, as an attempt to cater for both Ulster Irish and for those dialects where they say éigin, éigint or eicínt.

iomlán – as Dónall P. Ó Baoill points out in An Teanga Beo: Gaeilge Uladh – is used in the expression i ndiaidh an iomláin ‘after all’, the Ulster equivalent of the Blaskets expression tar éis an tsaoil, which we all of course know from An tOileánach, don’t we? Also iomlán gealaí for ‘full moon’ (lán in more standardized language).

ionsar ‘towards, to’ is one of the compound prepositions typical of Ulster Irish. It has the personal forms ionsorm, ionsort, ionsair, ionsuirthi, ionsorainn, ionsoraibh, ionsorthu. In the sense ‘to (a destination)’, Ulster Irish also uses a fhad le or fad le, which obviously means ‘as far as’. Ionsar was not used in East Ulster Irish, which instead preferred in m’ionsaí, in d’ionsaí etc. (Note that i is in before the possessive adjectives mo, do etc. in Ulster.)

‘day’ usually has the plural laetha rather than laethanta. Note such idiomatic uses with negation as níl lá iontais air ‘he is not at all surprised’ (word for word ‘there is no day of surprise upon him’), níl lá eolais aige ‘he doesn’t know anything’

lách means ‘friendly, sociable, nice’, of course, and it is usually still pronounced more like the old written form laghach. This suggests that it has the masculine genitive form laghaigh. Thus, in Ulster Irish gáirí an fhir laghaigh ‘the laughter of the friendly man’, while the standard would have gáire an fhir lách. (Note that adjectives ending in a long vowel before broad -ch do not have the -igh genitive singular masculine in Standard Irish.)

leathbhreac means the same as leithéid in more mainstream Irish – i.e. ‘the like (of…), counterpart, equal’. It is one of the dead giveaways of Ulster Irish, but note that leithéid is not exactly unknown in the dialect either. Leathbhreac isn’t usually used in plural, while leithéidí is quite common. Ó Dónaill gives it the regular genitive form leathbhric, but I don’t think I have ever seen a genitive form in literature.

leoga means ‘indeed’ and is more or less synonymous with muise, mhuise.

líne is seen in Ulster literature in the sense of ‘generation’.

málóideacht (or máláideacht, but in Ulster there is no difference in pronunciation, because non-initial long vowels are shortened and short a’s and o’s tend to be confused) rather than seafóid is the Ulster word for ‘nonsense, silliness’.

mana is not a loanword from Polynesian, but a genuine Ulster word, and it means ‘attitude’, i.e. the way of relating to somebody or something. For the attitude in the sense of an outer appearance to suggest an inner attitude, especially an uppity or defiant attitude, I’d use goic, a word not unknown to Ulster writers either. It basically means ‘slant, tilt’, such as the way somebody’s hat or cap is slanted to give a particular impression. Note that mana is something you have (agat), but goic is on you (ort), suggesting that it is something you are letting on. Mana is a masculine noun, goic is feminine.

manrán rather than the standard form banrán ‘grumbling, murmur of discontent’ is used by Aindrias Ó Baoill.

míghnaoi means ugliness, especially due to disfigurement. It is a feminine noun, as is gnaoi.

míghreann means gossip, gossiping (but the word might be stronger than just gossip – something like intentionally evil and mischievous gossiping about someone’s private matters). Some speakers write it as míreán, because it is not necessarily felt to be related to greann ‘fun, jokes, humour’ in any way. The genitive form is míghrinn, or míreáin.

Mí na bhFaoillí or Mí na bhFaoilleach is used for ‘February’ at least by some Ulster writers, but I am not entirely sure whether this is a genuine dialect expression. Note though that the present standard name of the month, Feabhra, comes from older literature and seems to have been extinct in all dialects before it was reintroduced in school Irish.

míofar means ‘ugly’ – both ‘not beautiful’ and ‘bad and morally reprehensible’. The adjective gránna also exists in Ulster.

mothaigh ‘feel’ often means ‘hear’ in Ulster, and it has the verbal noun mothachtáil rather than mothú. Note that airigh/aireachtáil also means both ‘feel’ and ‘hear’, but is not typical of Ulster Irish.

muintir can mean ‘ones’ in such contexts as ‘I prefer the red sweets to the blue ones’, is fearr liom na milseáin dearga ná an mhuintir ghorma (instead of the more standard is fearr liom na milseáin dearga ná na cinn ghorma). When muintir is used in this way, the attributive adjective takes the plural form, but is lenited by muintir, as it is a feminine noun. This usage of muintir has not entered written Irish very much, except in the expression an mhuintir óga ‘the young ones, young people’ (an t-aos óg, in a more mainstream Irish), which is quite frequently used in revivalist Belfast Irish, as far as I have noticed.

‘na bhaile is the Ulster variant of abhaile ‘home(ward)’. Sometimes you also see the somewhat etymologizing orthography chun an bhaile.

níon or nighean is how Ulster writers usually choose to write the word for ‘daughter’ (standard iníon). Genitive is níne, nighne, plural is níonacha, nighneacha.

óraice means ‘proper’ in such contexts as níl sé óraice agat é a dhéanamh ‘it is not proper of you to do it’. I’d say that óraice is most typically used in negated sentences.

pabhar is obviously the English word ‘power’, but it has been long established in the dialect in the idiomatic expression as pabhar, which is put in front of an adjective to give it, uhm, more power. As pabhar mór is really really big, and somebody who is as pabhar láidir is extraordinarily strong (even though the expression means, word for word, ‘out of power strong’).

pill!/pilleadh for fill!/filleadh ‘to return’ is typical of Ulster Irish (but not unheard of in Connacht, either).

pioctúir ‘picture’, genitive pioctúra is the usual form of pictiúr used in Ulster. Plural is pioctúirí or pioctúireacha.

príosúnach is of course the usual word for ‘prisoner’ in any kind of Irish (note though that there are brá and cime too), but in Ulster somebody who is very ceachartha or niggardly is said to make a prisoner of every penny, príosúnach a dhéanamh de gach pingin.

pronn!/pronnadh ‘to give as a present’ (bronn!/bronnadh in the standard language). Similarly, a present is called pronntanas or even pronntas.

puirtleog is a chubby little girl – this word can be found in Séamus Ó Grianna’s writings, for instance.

ris means ‘bare, exposed, naked’: tá cíocha na girsí ris ‘the girl’s breasts are naked’. Don’t use ris as an attributive adjective though: ‘the lecherous old men were staring at the girl’s naked breasts’ is bhí na seanfhir dhrúisiúla ag starógacht ar chíocha nochta na girsí – no ris there.

ródach ‘havoc, destruction’. Synonyms (not necessary Ulster dialect) include scrios, léirscrios, and éirleach. Ródach is masculine and has the genitive form ródaigh.

sáith is the Ulster word for dóthain, i.e. enough (for somebody): mo sháith ‘enough for me’, cf. mo dhóthain in other dialects. Sáith is not exclusively Ulster Irish in this sense though – it has some currency in Connacht too, and I reckon it is most typical of Northern Mayo Irish. Some Connacht writers prefer to spell it , which is probably how they pronounce it, but it looks kind of confusing.

saoirseacht rather than saoirse is the form used by some Ulster Irish writers for ‘freedom, liberty’. Obviously, it is feminine, with the genitive ending -a.

scainnir is a feminine noun (genitive scainnireach) used by Ulster writers for scannal ‘scandal’.

seantithe are old houses, but in Ulster Irish, they can be trouble: ná tarraing seantithe (anuas) orainn is the usual way to say ‘don’t get us into trouble’.

síochamh (masculine, genitive form síochaimh) rather than síocháin is used for ‘peace’ by such classical Ulster writers as Séamus Ó Grianna.

siosmaid is the Ulster word for ‘common sense’ and ‘good taste’ – by the way, these two English expressions seem to prompt exceptionally many clumsy attempts at word-for-word translation into Irish. It would be quite sensible – quite siosmaideach really – if non-native speakers of Irish adopted this good word in their active usage. It is a feminine noun (an tsiosmaid, na siosmaide).

sópa, rather than gallúnach or gallaoireach, is the usual word for ‘soap’ in Ulster. It is masculine (an sópa, an tsópa).

spliúchán is a word for money-pouch you can find in Ulster literature such as Rotha Mór an tSaoil, the most readable of all Gaeltacht autobiographies, and I have been assured by people usually in the know that this word is still used (i.e. that it is less of an obscure dialect word than treaspac, which was used by Seán Bán Mac Meanman). It is a masculine noun (an spliúchán, genitive an spliúcháin, plural na spliúcháin, genitive plural na spliúchán).

in the standard language means ‘juice’, but in Ulster it can mean ‘soup’ (for which the standard word is anraith, of course). Chicken soup might be called anraith sicíní in contemporary Irish, but back when Seán Bán Mac Meanman still lived and taught in Lár Thír Chonaill, he called it sú circe.

teaghlach ‘family, offspring’. There is a big confusion about the correct Irish word for ‘family’ in the sense of modern nuclear family. It is commonly assumed that clann is the word to be used, but this is wrong: in traditional Irish clann means only the children. Nowadays teaghlach is usually used for nuclear family, but it is frequently suggested that it is a literary word from Early Modern Irish and thus inappropriate. This is wrong however: teaghlach is a word used by modern Ulster writers. Their usage does suggest to me though that it is similarly problematic as clann, i.e. that it only refers to the children of a particular couple but not to the parents themselves. However, when I raised the question on an Irish-language discussion forum years ago, I was immediately presented with quotes that did question my assumption. Thus, I have come to the conclusion that there is no particular reason not to use teaghlach in the sense ‘(modern nuclear) family’. At the very least, it should be preferred to clann, which ought only to be used for ‘the children of a particular couple’. Teaghlach is masculine (an teaghlach, genitive an teaghlaigh, plural na teaghlaigh, genitive plural na dteaghlach).

tharla ‘happened’ is commonly used in the sense ‘because’, followed by a go/nach/gur/nár clause. Other forms of the verb tarlaigh!/tarlúint are much less common in Ulster (which is probably the reason why the loanword haipneáil is found in the dialect, at least according to Dónall P. Ó Baoill – note though that this word is not widely used in Ulster literature).

tír mór: mainland, as opposed to islands, is called tír mór, with unlenited m-, and even tír in this expression idiomatically resists lenition: ar tír mór. In books by Ulster writers, I have also seen an mhórthír, which behaves as a normal feminine noun.

tlig!/tligean is the Ulster way to pronounce teilg!/teilgean ‘to throw, to cast’, and in Ulster, it also usually means ‘to vomit’. However, the dialectal spelling is not common in literature.

toighis is ‘taste’ in the abstract sense, i.e. good taste. It can also mean liking or fancy. In this sense, it is in Irish ‘given to’, rather than ‘taken in’ something: thug mé toighis dó (similarly, taitneamh a thabhairt do…, teasghrá a thabhairt do…, nóisean a thabhairt do…)

toilghnústa is said to mean ‘wilful’, ‘deliberate’, but there is indication that it is mostly used in a negative sense – deliberate crimes, deliberate mischief, a deliberate act of violence and so on. Bhuail sé mé go toilghnústa implies that he hit me in malicious intent, in order to hurt me. (See page 49 in: Gordon W. MacLennan: Seanchas Annie Bhán, The Seanchás Annie Bhán Publication Committee, Dublin 1997.)

toisigh!/toiseacht is the Ulster form of tosaigh!/tosú ‘to begin’

tolgán is more or less the same as ulpóg, a bout of illness, such as a common cold, a flu. The verb tolg!/tolgadh means ‘to catch (a contagion, an infection), to contract (a disease), to be infected’: tholg sé an SEIF ó aitheantas aon oíche i San Francisco ‘he contracted AIDS from some one-night-stand in San Francisco’. Note though that tolgán is not necessarily a very exclusively Ulster word – myself, I picked it up from Máirtín Ó Cadhain to start with (but then, it is well known that Ó Cadhain, while writing in a style strongly influenced by his native Connacht dialect, often adopted words and expressions both from other dialects and from Classical Irish).

tormas means fastidiousness, finding fault with your food – ag fáil tormais ar do chuid bia. (Or …ar do chuid bídh in Ulster Irish.) Tormasach is the corresponding adjective – fastidious. Beadaí means something similar, but tormasach has more the sense of you being unnecessarily disdainful of what I perceive to be tolerably good food.

tórramh means ‘wake’ in more mainstream Irish, but in Ulster ‘funeral’. The northern word for wake is faire.

treaspac is a purse for money – sparán would be a less dialectal word. Actually I have found treaspac only in Seán Bán Mac Meanman’s writings, which suggests that the word is unknown outside Lár Thír Chonaill (central Donegal).

trioc means furniture. A single piece of furniture is ball trioc – note that trioc has no special genitive form. Troscán is the more standard word for furniture, which is also found in Ulster. For some speakers troscán is a countable noun and can as such refer to single pieces of furniture; for other speakers, it is a collective noun such as trioc and indeed the English ‘furniture’, so that a single piece of furniture is ball troscáin.

tuairim: as you saw above, the usual word for ‘opinion’ in the dialect is barúil, and the word for ‘a guesstimate, a humble uninformed opinion’ is ballaíocht. However, this does not mean tuairim is not used in the dialect. It is quite common in expressions of approximation, approximate quantity, approximate place, approximate age, where it is used almost like an adverb: tá sé tuairim is fiche bliain d’aois ‘he is about twenty years old’, for instance, or chonacthas an gadaí míchlúiteach an uair dheireanach tuairim na háite a ndearnadh an robáil mhór ‘the ill-reputed thief was last seen somewhere near the place where the big robbery was made’ (in fact, probably it’d be míchliúiteach in Ulster)

turadh means a lull between two showers of rain – a synonymous word also known in Ulster Irish is uaineadh

udaí can be used instead of úd ‘that there, yon’.

údar can mean ‘reason’, rather than ‘author’. Thus, údar amhráin is not necessarily the author of a song – it can be the incident that inspired it. (See page 85 in ‘Bhí an choirm á caitheamh i gCúirt Teamhrach’. Seán Bán Mac Grianna – scéalta agus amhráin, edited by Seán Mac Corraidh, Coiscéim, Binn Éadair 2010.)

ula mhagaidh, also written eala mhagaidh, is the typically Ulster expression for ‘a ridiculous person, a laughing-stock, a butt of jokes’. This is a concept for which Irish has lots of expressions – synonyms from other dialects include staicín áiféise, ceap magaidh, and paor.

ulpóg: The Ulster writer Aindrias Ó Baoighill, also known as Fiach Fánach, once wrote that he didn’t like the word fliú, i.e. ‘flu’, to be used in Irish. He would have preferred ulpóg, which is indeed a good Ulster word used for the kind of contagion everyone catches. A synonymous word is tolgán, which I first picked up from Máirtín Ó Cadhain, a Connacht writer, but which I later found out to have currency in Ulster Irish too – Seán Mac Maoláin mentions it in his list of Ulster words, Cora Cainte as Tír Chonaill (An Gúm, Baile Átha Cliath 1992, page 178)

Ultach when written with a capital U is an Ulsterman, but ultach with a small u is a load – it can be what you carry on your arm, but it is not unheard of in the sense of a carload. It can also be used figuratively: in my country, where snow is a much more common appearance than in Ireland, a tree with what you’d call ultach trom sneachta is a typical sight in winter.

úmaigh!/úmú is a variant of úim!/úmadh ‘to harness’, but in Ulster it is usually used in the sense of preparing for a journey. In Connacht (at least in Mayo literature), the verbal noun úmachan has a similar sense.

vaidhtéir or vaitéir is based on the old expression for coast guard, i.e. water-guard. It is still used in the dialect in more or less that meaning.

Place-names, again

COUNTY DUBLIN – CONTAE ÁTHA CLIATH

Adamstown – Baile Adaim

Artane – Ard Aidhin

Ashtown – Baile an Áisigh

Balbriggan – Baile Brigín

Blanchardstown – Baile Bhlainséir

Donabate – Domhnach Bat

Dublin – Baile Átha Cliath

Dún Laoghaire – Dún Laoghaire

Lusk – Lusca

Malahide – Mullach Íde

Portmarnock – Port Mearnóg

Rush – an Ros

Skerries – na Sceirí

Swords – Sord Cholm Cille

Tallaght – Tamhlacht

 

Have a meal!

The usual word for a meal in Irish is béile, which is masculine. A quite full synonym is séire, another masculine. There is also proinn, a feminine word, but I don’t recall ever seeing it in folklore.

Breakfast is usually bricfeasta, with many dialectal parallel forms – one of the most distinctive being briocast, which I have seen in folklore texts from the Ring of Waterford. You can also use céadphroinn (from c(h)éad- “first” and proinn), but this word reeks somewhat of officialese. Béile maidine “morning meal” is another possibility.

The English word “breakfast” comes from “breaking the fast” in the morning. This kind of morning fast is in Irish céalacan, and you can say céalacan a bhriseadh for “breaking the (morning) fast”. Céalacan has also been used in the sense of starving, and of hunger strike (although stailc ocrais is more common in that sense). Pictiúr an chéalacain or the “picture of the morning fast” is someone who is starving and looks that way.

Lunch is translated with lón, but note that it has a more general meaning of “supplies, provisions”. Lón léitheoireachta means basically a leisurely kind of reading, and lón cogaidh is ammunition. Another expression for “lunch” is béile meán lae (note that that meán part isn’t inflected here). The business of catering is very unsurprisingly called lónadóireacht, gnó na lónadóireachta.

For “supper” the English loanword suipéar is quite established, but obviously béile oíche can also be used.

The verb for “having” a meal is caith!/caitheamh. Of course, “eat” is ith!/ithe. When you have had enough, you can say tá mo dhóthain agam or tá mo sháith agam; the expression tá ceas orm is suggested by Mícheál Ó Siadhail in Learning Irish, but Niall Ó Dónaill’s dictionary says it means you have eaten too much.

War and Weapons

The Irish are not really a warlike people today, but they have been, and many of those Irishmen who emigrated to An tOileán Úr ended up in warlike professions. Also, the military prowess of the Irish shown in the American Civil War – Cogadh Cathartha na Stát Aontaithe (“the Civil War of the United States”) or Cogadh Cathartha Mheiriceá (“the Civil War of America”) – was an important part of the Irish being accepted as fellow Americans, which in the times of no Irish need apply wasn’t quite obvious yet.

Anyway, war is cogadh, masculine, genitive cogaidh, plural cogaí (although I am sure such double plurals as cogaíocha are perfectly acceptable in spoken language). A soldier is saighdiúir, gen. saighdiúra, plural saighdiúirí. Traditionally, saighdiúir dubh or “black soldier” used to mean a member of the Royal Irish Constabulary (Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann), and a saighdiúir dearg was not a Communist guardsman, but a redcoat, a British soldier. (Even An tArm Dearg referred to the British army.)

The Anglo-Irish war can be called an Cogadh Angla-Éireannach, but also Cogadh na Saoirse, the war of freedom, liberty or liberation. The Irish civil war can be called Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann, but more idiomatically, Cogadh na gCarad, the war of the friends.

The adjective “military” is míleata. (“Warlike” is cogúil, cathach or trodach.) The noun, “the military”, must be rendered with an tArm, “the army”. And if you join the army, you “go into it”: chuaigh an fear óg san arm (ins an arm), chuaigh an fear óg sna saighdiúirí (ins na saighdiúirí) “the young man joined the army”.

Ammunition can be muinisean with an English loanword (masculine, genitive muinisin), but there are also such expressions as armlón, lón lámhaigh, and lón cogaidh. The last one I would prefer myself, it has wide currency in literature. It might be a little inexact though; according to the Ó Dónaill dictionary, it can also be used in the more general sense of war supplies: ordanás agus lón cogaidh is defined as “ordnance and supplies” in Ó Dónaill under ordanás.

A gun is called gunna, masculine, with the plural form gunnaí. A rifle is raidhfil, masculine, with the plural raidhfilí. A shotgun is gunna gráin. Artillery guns are called gunnaí móra – simply “big guns”. Artillery is of course airtléire.  The verb for shooting is usually scaoil!/scaoileadh, “to fire a shot” is thus urchar a scaoileadh. Loisc!/loscadh is also possible; in the sense of shooting someone, you can use caith!/caitheamh – for instance, caitheadh Pádraig Mac Piarais i ndiaidh Éirí Amach na Cásca “Patrick Pearse was shot after the Easter Rising”. Also for firing other kinds of projectiles, such as flares: a flare is lasrachán, to fire a flare is lasrachán a scaoileadh. Note though that lasrachán is not used in authentic Irish-language memoirs from the Anglo-Irish war: even in Irish-language contexts flares are called Very lights. A shot, a round of ammunition is urchar.

Conscription is coinscríobh, masculine, genitive coinscríofa. This is a modern neologism based on the English word. Back in Séamus Ó Grianna’s times, the common people translated it preasáil, which though is not strictly the same as conscription, but means impressment, press-ganging, shanghaiing, forced recruitment of soldiers or seamen. (In Seán Bán Mac Meanman’s collected works, you will find many folklore-based stories about the cidnappers – thus written! – who kidnap young Irishmen for the navy.) A conscript(ed soldier) is coinscríofach. 

One of the early attempts to translate “conscription” into Irish was óglachas éigeantach. The word óglach, which even people with scant knowledge of Irish will recognize, means “volunteer” in the military sense. It is originally óglaoch (“young hero”); in poetry, the variant óglách is also used if needed for rhythm or rhyme. Óglaigh na hÉireann “the Volunteers of Ireland” or “the Irish Volunteers” has today a strong nationalistic overtone, and both the army of the Irish state and various IRA-related outfits call themselves so, which is the reason why the IRA is simply called an tIRA in Irish, too. The Irish defence forces in their entirety call themselves Óglaigh na hÉireann, but for clarity also Fórsaí Cosanta na hÉireann; they comprise the Army or Arm na hÉireann (or an tArm, if not followed by the na hÉireann attribute), the Naval Service or Seirbhís Chabhlaigh na hÉireann (or an tSeirbhís Chabhlaigh, when the na hÉireann part is omitted) and the Air Corps (Aerchór na hÉireann or an tAerchór).

Recruitment is earcú, the verb is earcaigh!/earcúTá an tArm ag earcú daoine óga díograiseacha chun an tír a chosaint “The Army is recruiting enthusiastic young people to defend the country”. A recruit is earcach, and can be called rúcach or a rookie (the Irish word is an established loanword). Another word is fruiligh!/fruiliú, but it is seldom used in a military context – I remember to have seen it once or twice used in that sense, though.

A noncommissioned officer is in Irish oifigeach neamhchoimisiúnaithe, too. An officer is oifigeach.

The army ranks are earcach (recruit), saighdiúir singil (private), ceannaire (“leader” – i.e. corporal), sáirsint (sergeant), ceathrúsháirsint complachta (company quartermaster sergeant), sáirsint complachta (company sergeant), ceathrúsháirsint cathláin (battalion quartermaster sergeant), ceathrúsháirsint reisiminte (regimental quartermaster sergeant), maorsháirsint cathláin (battalion sergeant-major), maorsháirsint reisiminte (regimental sergeant-major), dalta (cadet), dara leifteanant (second lieutenant), leifteanant (lieutenant), captaen (captain), ceannfort (commandant – the equivalent of the major – a major in non-Irish armies can be called maor airm), leifteanant-choirnéal (lieutenant colonel), coirnéal (colonel), briogáidire-ghinearál (brigade general), maor-ghinearál (major general), leifteanant-ghinearál (lieutenant general), and ginearál (general). Colonel-general (a rank in some armies) can be translated as coirnéal-ghinearál, and a field-marshal is marascal machaire with a nice allitteration.

A civil war is called cogadh cathartha, a rebellion can be reibiliún, but also ceannaircReibiliún is a masculine word, ceannairc is a feminine, with the genitive form ceannairce. The verb “to rebel” is éirigh amach/éirí amachD’éirigh muintir na tíre amach in aghaidh an rialtais “the people of the country rebelled against the government”. Éirí amach as a noun is masculine, and can be used of a popular rising, such as Éirí Amach na Cásca “the Easter Rising”. Another possible phrase is chuaigh muintir na tíre chun ceannairce ar an rialtas. And note also the expression dul chun cearmansaíochta (ar…). It is not exactly the same as dul chun ceannairce, but it means “get out of hand, become uncontrollable” and of course it can refer not just to unruly children (chuaigh na páistí chun cearmansaíochta ar an múinteoir) but also to certain situations in war: chaith na fórsaí forghabhála leathbhliain ag iarraidh na treallchogaithe a choinneáil faoi smacht, agus bhí ag éirí leo ar dtús, ach sa deireadh chuaigh na treallchogaithe chun cearmansaíochta ar fad “the occupying forces spent half a year trying to control the partisans, and they seemed to be succeeding to start with, but in the end the partisans got out of hand entirely”.

Partisan warfare or guerrilla warfare is treallchogaíocht, and I see no reason why we couldn’t use treallchogaí for a partisan or a guerrillero. The new online dictionary gives also the words pairtiseán (a partisan), guairille (guerilla), but I mostly prefer treallchogaí, treallchogaíocht. A warrior can be laoch (“hero”) or gaiscíoch, but there is also the word faraire, probably an English loanword. It tends to be confused with fairtheoir though, i.e. a sentry. For “Halt! Who goes there?” I’d recommend Stad! Cé atá ansin?

A tank is tanc, plural tancanna; an armoured car is gluaisteán armúrtha. Troops are usually trúpaí, but note also feadhain (feminine, genitive feadhna) and díorma, the latter meaning something like “troop detachment”. Díorma is masculine and has the plural díormaí.